Journals of Reverend Joseph Wolff 1832 – Akalis – 1832


In the land of Runjeet Singh (Maharaja Ranjit Singh) are a kind of military, spiritual Dervishes, highly respected, and revered by the nation, and even considered to be sacred. They are called Akalee, immortal. This sect was originally founded by Gooroo Govind Singh, the tenth Gooroo of the Seiks. The Seiks were formerly a spiritual people, and did not aspire to temporal power, they were however in the habit of disturbing the peace of the country, and resisting the authority of the Mahomedan government, from the religious animosity which naturally existed between them. This led to the persecution of the sect, and in the time of Aurunghzeeb, Emperor of Delhi, the Mahomedans succeeded in seizing the Gooroo Dekht Bahadar,(Tegh Bahadur) the 9th priest of the Seiks, who was put to death at Delhi. Gooroo Govind Singh, on his accession to the primacy, invoked the vengeance of God, to revenge this insult, and determined to prosecute a war against the Moghul. After various successes, he was defeated, and obliged to abandon his country. Those of his followers, who remained firm to him in the contest with the Moghuls, he honoured by the nomination of Akalee, or the immortal; and from that time they became a mendicant race. The Seiks became independent during the reign of Furokhseer, the Emperor of Delhi. The Akalee increased in number, and they are noted for their predatory and fanatical habits and impertinence. Seventy years ago, the Seiks established their authority in the Punjab. The Akalee wear a distinctive dress, of dark-blue, and a high cap, in which they generally wear iron rings, resembling a quoit, which the Seiks formerly used as an implement of war. Journals of Reverend Joseph Wolff 1832. 


Vadda Ghallughaara

** Vadda Ghallughaara** ( The Great Battle)

5th Feb 1762 — Battlefield of Kup-Rahirha — 60,000 Sikhs , most of them Children, Women and Elders protected by 8 Misls of Dal Panth are surrounded by Invading Foces of Ahmed Shah Abdali.

300,000 enemies, Afghans, Rohillas, Mughals, Local Muslims launch an all-out offensive to eliminate Khalsa Panth.

But 8 Misls of Khalsa Panth fight back — using the Formation never used before in Military-History of World — Dvait Chakra ( Two Wheels).

Khalsa fights back, protecting children,women and elders, protecting their Identity, existence and Honour.

Khalsa fights and moves for 12 miles.

40,000 Sikhs attain Shaheedi in this Great Battle.

100,000 Enemies are cut by Swords of Khalsa.

Enemies Return as night falls, thinking they had finished Sikhs.

But Khalsa survives with Grace of Akaal Purakh and a Nihang Singh walks in the Night for 12 Miles looking at the bodies of Martyred Sikh Warriors, Children, Women and Elders singing —

Kamaljeet Singh

Who is an Akali and a Nihang Singh? Sudharam Marag Granth, 1791 AD, likely to be from the early 18th century.

Daya Singh asks the ‘True Guru who is an Akali, please answer the question in my mind. Please be kind and answer so that my mind is clear’
Guru Gobind Singh answers ‘An Akali is one who wears blue clothes, who repeats Gurbar Akal and wears Sarbloh.1. Who wears a rosary (mala) of Sarbloh, Chakkar, and Sword. Who does not pierce their ears or nose, which is the order of the Satiguru.2. Who keeps five weapons on the body, and keeps a Kirpan in a Gatra. Who does not eat without blessing his food with his sword, and saying Sat Sri Akal!3. Who keeps away from pleasure with another man’s wife and sleeping with the Turaks. He renounces this and keeps his mind on the Guru only.4. Who eats only out of Sarbloh vessels and abandons other tastes. Who eats by burning fire-wood and in a pure place, and keeps the maryada of blue clothes.5. Wearing a white kacchera, and a Blue Bana, keeps the unbroken meditation of God in the mouth. Who learns Sri Akal Ustati and Chandi di Var by heart.7. Whose every hair repeats [Vahiguru] and while acting but mentally abandons actions. Who loves the Guru Granth Sahib and runs away from the 5 evils [kam, krodh, lobh, moh, hankar]. Who punishes those who speak evil against the Guru, and does not interact with the Turaks. Who does not worship at the Mandairs of the Indian deities, but worships the Panth.9. Who keeps kesh but does not dye them, who renounces lust and anger. Who wages war at the vanguard, knowing God is the protector.10. Wearing a kachhera of half a gaz, of white cloth. At all moments doing naam jaap, cutting the noose of death.11. Who does this in every action, birth, death, marriage and takes Amrit. These are the actions of a Singh who is known as an Akali. Here ends Sudharam Marag Granth and the ways of the Akali, the eternal teaching of Dharam imparted via the Naam, the 13th chapter.’
‘Known one who ties a high turban as a Nihang. His ways are also like the Akali, listen to me Oh Sikhs.1. A Nihang means one who is free from Ahankar and fully in the Dharam. Who wears weapons on the body, and a Chakkar on the head.2. Who keeps a naked sword in hand at all times. Who is fearless and does not care about birth and death.3. Who keeps sword in hand and ties a high turban. Which is the Kalgi of the Panth, who is blessed by the Guru.4. Who eats from Sarbloh vessels and in a pure cooking spot. Who wears blue clothes, who eats by blessing it with Sarbloh.5. Who carries the Nishan and Nagara and repeats the name of the Guru. Who at all times is in Dharam and remembers the sanctuary of the Guru.6. Who delights in the Shabad and forever bows to Akal Purakh. When the Guru is merciful such a Nihang is blessed with enlightenment.7. Who eats the Parshad from a Sarbloh Batta, to renounce his greed. Who accepts if less or more is given [by the Guru].8. Making karah Parshad should be bibek (shud). Vahiguru mantar should be repeated, doing Kirtan happyness is found.9. A Sikh should not lower his head to a Turak or Persian. Bowing to their feet you will incur more birth and death.10. If there is a Divan and you do not go to it, or to make Parshad without rahit. Who dishes this out will taste the pain of death. When coming in the Sangat of mothers, sisters, and daughters in the Sat Sangat. Who looks at them in a bad way will go to the deepest hell.11. A Sikh should remain with an open heart, not stone hearted. To take from daughters, a Sikh will suffer hell. 12. Taking this wealth one will suffer the mace of death. If a Sikh moves around without his weapons he does not practice his Dharam.13. Who looks at the Turaks and bows down, or to a place of the Devas. To tombs will loose this chance in life. 14. Give food to those Sikhs who need it. If you feed the shaven headed ones you will be cursed. 15. Worth millions of bathing at the Ganges, is to bath once at Amritsar. This is the water of peace, that gives happiness, but remember the Guru’s mantra in bathing. 16. Do not praise the wordly Kings, you will suffer the mace of death. Meet those and relate to those who do not play games.17. By even looking at those who like to make others suffer, you will also suffer. Meet the Sadhus with great love from your heart.18. Do not go to the Divans of the Turaks or Chiefs. Do not surrender to lust. Treat the Mazhbi Sikhs as equals as they are blessed by the Guru who are your brothers in Dharam. Those who are loyal to the Guru are blessed here and herefafter. 20. Do not wash the feet of a Sikh who orders you to do so. You will suffer the torment of death. When wearing new clothes, bless them first at the feet of the Guru. By placing them at the feet of Guru Granth Sahib, the giver of happiness.23. Repeat Akal, you will be liberated, it is the true name. Meditate on the lotus feet and presence of the true Guru, and your suffering will decrease.24. Making an abode of Guru Granth Sahib ji. You will be rewarded with heavens. Gossips destroys your destiny and creates suffering. Do not speak such words about others, you will suffer in the hereafter.26. Do not eat the meat of the Turaks.  Do not sing anything other that the words approved by the Guru. Do not listen to the songs and entertainment of prostitutes. If you fall to lust, you must pray for forgiveness. Discriminate like a sharp sword, do not burn by being caught between renunciation and gristi in your mind. Only go to the bed to make love if it is within the Dharam [married].27. Give away wealth to charity. Listen to katha and kirtan and you will be liberated.30. If you sleep with another man’s wife you are a Maha Patit. Who will recieve punishment and beatings, and hell. 31. If you speak bad words about a good Sikh and Sadhu. Take the wealth of another, you will suffer hell.32. If someone slanders the Guru, show them how to discriminate with the sword. Do not go near such power hungry people, and keep in the sangat of the Guru.33. Do not blow on fire. Do not put fire out with water you have drunk. 34. Without remembering Vahiguru do not eat. In bad company you will never find mental peace.  Celebrate Vaisakhi and Deep Mala. Hola Mohalla should be at Anandpur, where you will find enlightenment.36. Go to Abachal Nagar (Hazur Sahib). If you worship at other places than the Gurudwara you will suffer. 37. Work hard for the Guru, give you mind, body and wealth. In the company of the Guru Singh Sangat you will find liberation. 38. Serve the Panth and clasp its feet and you will find happiness.39. Wake up early and bow to the Guru. Take the darshan of Guru Granth Sahib that eradicates all suffering and disease.40.  Do not praise wordly rulers, it causes suffering. Protect the Sadhus and you will not be decieved ever. 41. Doing a bad deed is like being struck by the blow of death. Use logic to determine what is Dharam or not and you will find the heavens. 42. Look at all people as the same. Love and give equal respect to all. 43. Do not sleep with another’s wife or prostitutes. Do not ask for blessings from anyone other than the Guru.44. Do not sleep naked, do not meditate naked, wash after sex. Do not eat without your head covered, it causes pain.45. Do not associate with the Turaks, this is the seed of Turaks. This is like the poision a step mother gives to her step child. 46. The Khalsa gives up gossip and fights at the forefront. It is a good charitable deed to kill the invading Turaks. Keeping five weapons to fight, is a great action. Do not loose your respect, so give up gossip. 48. Read Gurbani in your mind, keep weapons at hand. Run into the battle and do not turn your back. 49. Look after the poor kill the Turak enemies. Do Nam recitation of the Guru, sacrifice your life. 50. Link your mind to the Guru’s shabad that breaks all bonds. Ride on a horse, kill the Turaks, keep weapons on your person.51. Be in Dharam cultivate it, and become a ruler over men. Die in battle this is order of Akal. 52. Then the Turaks and Princes will be in fear, and in all directions will be the sound of Akal. Do not slander anybody, keep Dharam and be protected.53. The Khalsa is manifest that is the four castes in one. Vahiguru Akal should be repeated continously which is most high. 54. I will make the Khalsa Raj with the horse and eagle as its symbol. The Turaks will run when the Singhs come on Elephants.55. On each dooor the drums with resound and the flags will held in each hand. Those that come into the Dharam will taken in shelter, those that do not will perish. 56. The Singhs will stay in the Dharam and united with the Guru. Raj without Dharam is lost. 57. Serve the Saints and read bani and meditate. The Sikhs should worship the Guru Granth Sahib, else they shall loose.58. My Sikhs should stay in this rahit and their desires will be fulfilled. Between them and myself there is no differnce. 59. A Sikh should not shave his son or daughters head. He should spread this message to his brothers. 60. Do not believe in caste, believe in a person’s actions. Depending on our actions we get either heaven or hell. 61. A wise Singh should not meet the Persians, and believers in non-violence. Who meets with the Turaks, know them to be impure. 62. Never take an oath on Guru Granth Sahib, the Guru, or Amritsar, who does goes to a horrible hell. 63. Do patth at amritvela after bathing, and do nitnem. Then in this world and the next the Guru is with you. 64. Now auspiciously ends Sri Sudharam Marag Granth, the teaching to Nihangs, the fourteenth chapter. 
I have roughly translated this, is it not word for word. Bhul chukka di maffi. Das, Kamalroop Singh Nihang.